What is Science – Definition, Methods, Types

What is Science



Science is the study of the natural world. It is a process of observing, investigating, and experimenting to find out how things in the universe work. Science is all around us in the way plants grow, the weather changes, and even our bodies function.

Science is not just a body of knowledge; it is a way of thinking. Scientists are constantly asking questions, testing hypotheses, and looking for patterns. This process helps them to better understand how the world works and make predictions about what will happen next.

History of Science

The study of science is often thought to be a relatively recent pursuit, but its origins date back thousands of years. The early scientists were mostly interested in understanding the natural world and how it worked, but their work was often hindered by a lack of reliable evidence and the limitations of their observations.

As time went on, however, scientific advances began to accumulate at an ever-increasing pace. In the 16th and 17th centuries, astronomers such as Galileo and Johannes Kepler made groundbreaking discoveries about the solar system. In the 18th century, scientists like Isaac Newton and Charles Darwin began to develop theories that would change our understanding of the universe forever.

And in the 19th and 20th centuries, scientists made incredible strides in fields as diverse as physics, chemistry, biology, and anthropology. As a result, many of the scientific theories that were once considered controversial have become universally accepted. In some cases, these theories have even transformed our understanding of the world and overturned previously held beliefs. Like in the early 19th century, most people believed that the Earth was flat. In fact, this belief had been widely held for centuries.

Branches of Science

branches of Science are divided into five types:

  • Natural science
  • Social science
  • Formal science
  • Applied science
  • Interdisciplinary science

Natural science

Natural science is the study of the physical world. It covers a wide range of topics, from the structure of the atom to the origins of the universe.

Natural science is divided into two main branches:

  • Physics
  • Chemistry

Physics is the study of matter and energy, while chemistry is the study of the composition and properties of matter.

Natural science is essential for understanding how the world works. It helps us to develop new technologies and find solutions to problems like climate change.

Social science

Social science is the study of human behavior. It covers the following topics:

Social science aims to understand how people interact with each other and how they make choices.

Formal science

Formal science is the branch of knowledge that is formalized and can be expressed in the form of mathematical equations or other logical constructs. It includes branches such as:

  • Mathematics
  • Logic
  • Statistics
  • Computer science

It is distinct from natural science, which deals with the empirical study of the natural world. The two are often seen as complementary, with formal science providing a theoretical framework for natural science.

Formal science has important applications in many fields, including engineering, computer science and economics. It helps us to understand complex systems and to make predictions about their behavior.

Applied science

Applied science is a discipline of science that applies existing scientific knowledge to develop more practical applications, like technology or inventions. It is often considered a bridge between basic research (pure science) and applied research (which seeks to solve specific problems).

Some common examples of applied sciences include:

  • Medical Science
  • Agricultural Science
  • Industrial Design
  • Information Technology

One of the main goals of applied science is to improve the quality of human life. For example, medical science can be used to develop new treatments for diseases, while agricultural science can be used to improve crop yields.

Interdisciplinary science

Interdisciplinary science is a branch of science that brings together multiple disciplines in order to study complex systems. It integrates knowledge from different fields in order to build a more comprehensive understanding of the system under study.

Scientific Method

The scientific method is a process for experimentation that is used to explore observations and answer questions. It is important to use the scientific method because it is a systematic way to test ideas and find answers to questions. The steps of the scientific method are:

The scientific method is important because it helps scientists to design experiments that accurately test their hypotheses.

Purpose of Science

The purpose of science is to provide explanations for natural phenomena. It is also to find patterns in those phenomena and to develop theories that can be tested and verified. Science is a systematic way of acquiring knowledge about the natural world. It is based on observation, experimentation, and the application of scientific methods.

About the author

Muhammad Hassan

Researcher, Academic Writer, Web developer