What is Psychology – Definition-Types-Methods

What is Psychology



Psychology is the study of the human mind. It is a branch of science that deals with mental processes and behavior. Psychology is concerned with all aspects of human behavior, from the simplest things like why we smile to the more complex things like why we have mental disorders.

The aim of psychology is to understand and explain how people think, feel, and behave. Psychology has been around for centuries, but it was not until the late 19th century that it became an established discipline.

It helps us to understand ourselves and others better. It can also be used to treat mental disorders and problems. Psychology can also be used in businesses, schools, and other organizations to help people work better together.

History of Psychology

A brief history of psychology can be traced back to the time of the early Greek philosophers, such as Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. These philosophers were interested in understanding human nature and behavior. In the late 19th century, psychology began to emerge as a separate science. Wilhelm Wundt is often considered the founder of psychology. He established the first psychological laboratory in 1879.

During the early 20th century, psychology became increasingly professionalized and scientific. Two different schools of thought emerged: structuralism and functionalism. Structuralists believed that consciousness could be broken down into its basic elements, or structures. Functionalists focused on how mental processes functioned – how they helped people adapt to their environment.

Today, psychology is a broad field that includes many different approaches to studying the mind and behavior.

Types of Psychology

Types of Psychology are as follows:

  • Abnormal Psychology
  • Behavioral Psychology
  • Biopsychology
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Cognitive Psychology
  • Comparative Psychology
  • Counseling Psychology
  • Cross-Cultural Psychology
  • Developmental Psychology
  • Educational Psychology
  • Experimental Psychology
  • Forensic Psychology
  • Health Psychology
  • Industrial-Organizational Psychology
  • Personality Psychology
  • School Psychology
  • Social Psychology
  • Sports Psychology

Abnormal Psychology

Abnormal psychology is the study of abnormal behavior in order to better understand and treat mental disorders. It is a branch of psychology that deals with diagnosing and treating mental illness. Mental disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic predisposition, brain damage, trauma, stress, and substance abuse.

There are many different types of mental disorders, ranging from mild to severe. Some common disorders include anxiety disorders, mood disorders, eating disorders, and personality disorders. Treatment for mental illness often includes medication, therapy, or a combination of both. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary.

Behavioral Psychology

Behavioral psychology is the study of human behavior. It is a branch of psychology that looks at how people behave and why they behave the way they do.

Behavioral psychologists use different techniques to study human behavior, including experiments, observations, and surveys. They also use different methods to try to change people’s behavior, such as operant conditioning and reinforcement.

Behavioral psychologists work in a variety of settings, including schools, hospitals, prisons, and businesses. They work with people of all ages, from children to adults.


Biopsychology is the study of how the brain and nervous system influence behavior. It is a relatively new field that combines aspects of biology and psychology.

Biopsychologists use a variety of techniques to study the brain and behavior, including neuroimaging, electrophysiology, and molecular genetics. By understanding the relationship between the brain and behavior, biopsychologists hope to shed light on a wide range of psychiatric disorders, such as depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia.

Clinical Psychology

Clinical psychology is a branch of psychology that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of mental illness, emotional disturbance, and abnormal behavior. Clinical psychologists work in a variety of settings, including hospitals, private practices, and mental health clinics. They may also work in schools, universities, or government agencies.

Clinical psychologists use a variety of methods to assess and treat their patients. These methods include psychological testing, individual and group therapy, and behavior modification. Clinical psychologists are trained to use these methods in order to help their patients improve their mental health and well-being.

Cognitive Psychology

Cognitive psychology is the study of how people think, learn, and remember. It encompass a wide range of topics including attention, language, memory, perception, problem solving, and decision making.

Cognitive psychologists use a variety of research methods to study the human mind, including experiments, case studies, surveys, and observational research.

The goal of cognitive psychology is to understand how people process information and make decisions. By understanding how the mind works, cognitive psychologists can help people improve their thinking skills and learn more effectively.

Comparative Psychology

Comparative psychology is the study of animal behavior. It is the scientific study of how different species of animals behave in their natural habitats. Comparative psychologists use the scientific method to study animal behavior, and they conduct research on a variety of topics, including learning, memory, emotions, and communication.

Animals are complex creatures, and there is a lot we can learn about them by studying their behavior. Comparative psychology can help us understand not only how animals behave, but also how they think and feel. This knowledge can be used to improve the lives of animals in captivity, and it can also help us better understand our own human behavior.

Counseling Psychology

Counseling psychology is a branch of psychology that helps people work through life’s challenges. Counseling psychologists use psychological principles and techniques to help people manage their emotions, understand their thoughts and behaviors, and make positive changes in their lives.

Counseling psychologists work with individuals, couples, families, and groups to help them cope with problems such as anxiety, depression, relationship issues, and family conflict. They also work with people who are dealing with major life transitions, such as divorce or bereavement. In addition to providing counseling services, counseling psychologists also conduct research on topics such as human development and mental health.

Cross-Cultural Psychology

Cross-cultural psychology is the scientific study of human behavior in social and cultural contexts. It is a relatively new field of psychology that began to emerge in the mid-20th century as a result of increasing contact between people from different cultures.

Cross-cultural psychologists seek to understand how cultural factors influence psychological processes such as cognition, emotion, and motivation. They also examine how psychological processes vary across cultures.

Cross-cultural psychology is an important field of study because it can help us to better understand the complex nature of human behavior. It can also help us to find ways to improve communication and cooperation between people from different cultures.

Developmental Psychology

Developmental psychology is a branch of psychology that focuses on the physical, cognitive, and social changes that occur throughout a person’s life span. Developmental psychologists study how people grow, develop, and change over time.

Most developmental psychologists work with children and adolescents, but some also work with adults. Developmental psychologists often conduct research on topics such as child development, language acquisition, memory, and attention span.

Developmental psychology is an important field of study because it can help us understand how people learn, think, and behave. It can also help us find ways to improve education and child-rearing practices.

Educational Psychology

Educational psychology is the scientific study of how humans learn in educational settings, the effectiveness of educational interventions, the psychology of teaching, and the social psychology of schools as organizations. It includes the study of individual differences in learning, motivation, and cognition; classroom dynamics; educational policy; and the sociology of education.

Educational psychologists work in a variety of settings, including schools, universities, government agencies, and private companies. They may conduct research on topics such as memory or motivation; design educational programs or interventions; provide consulting services to schools or organizations; or teach courses in psychology or education.

Experimental Psychology

Experimental psychology is the scientific study of behavior. This type of psychology uses rigorous methods to study human behavior, including both normal and abnormal behavior. Experimental psychologists use a variety of research methods to understand how the mind works and how it affects behavior.

Most experimental psychologists work in university settings, where they conduct research and teach courses. Many also work in private industry, government, or other organizations. Experimental psychologists use their knowledge of psychological principles to solve problems in a variety of fields, such as education, health, business, and sports.

Experimental psychology is a dynamic and growing field with many exciting opportunities for those interested in studying human behavior. If you are curious about how people think and behave, experimental psychology may be the field for you.

Forensic Psychology

Forensic psychology is the study of psychological factors as they relate to criminal behavior and the law. It is a relatively new field, having only emerged in the early 20th century. Forensic psychologists use their knowledge of human behavior to help solve crimes and assess criminals’ mental states.

Forensic psychology is one of the most interesting and important fields in psychology. It helps us to understand why people commit crimes, and how we can better prevent them in the future. Forensic psychologists play a vital role in our justice system, and their work has helped to make our world a safer place.

Health Psychology

Health psychology is the scientific study of how psychological factors influence health and well-being. It is a relatively new field that has only emerged over the past few decades, but it has already made a major impact on our understanding of health and disease.

There are many different areas of research within health psychology, but some of the most important include the study of stress and its effects on health, the promotion of healthy behaviors, and the prevention and treatment of illness.

Health psychologists work in a variety of settings, including hospitals, clinics, schools, and businesses. They often collaborate with other professionals such as physicians, nurses, and social workers to provide comprehensive care for patients.

Industrial-Organizational Psychology

Industrial-organizational psychology is the scientific study of the workplace. Industrial-organizational psychologists apply principles of psychology to organizations and the individual workers within those organizations.

The goal of industrial-organizational psychology is to improve the quality of work life. This includes improving worker productivity and satisfaction, as well as reducing stress and conflict in the workplace.

Industrial-organizational psychologists use a variety of research methods to study topics such as employee selection, training, and performance appraisal. They also may consult with organizations on issues such as work design, stress management, and organizational development.

Personality Psychology

Personality psychology is the scientific study of the whole person. It looks at all aspects of a person’s life, including their thoughts, emotions, behaviors, and relationships. Personality psychologists try to understand how people are different from each other and what factors make them unique.

Personality psychology is a relatively new field. It started to gain popularity in the early 1900s. However, it wasn’t until the mid-1900s that personality psychology became an established field of study.

There are many different theories of personality. The most well-known theory is the Five Factor Model. This theory includes five broad dimensions of personality: Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness to Experience.

School Psychology

School Psychology is the scientific study of children’s learning and development in educational settings. School psychologists work with students, teachers, families, and school administrators to create positive learning environments and to identify and address academic, behavioral, and mental health concerns.

School psychologists use their knowledge of child development, learning, and behavior to help children succeed academically, socially, emotionally, and behaviorally. They collaborate with educators, families, and other professionals to promote healthy development and well-being for all children.

School psychologists have a unique blend of skills that allow them to support the needs of students, families, educators, and administrators. They use data-driven decision making to design effective programs and interventions that support student success.

Social Psychology

In social psychology, researchers study how people interact with one another. They examine how people’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others. Social psychologists are interested in all aspects of human social behavior, from the interactions between individuals to the relationships between groups.

Sports Psychology

While the field of psychology generally focuses on the study of human behavior, sports psychology specifically looks at how psychological factors affect performance in athletes. This includes studies on everything from how well athletes perform under pressure to how they can best motivate themselves to achieve their goals.

Sports psychologists often work with athletes to help them improve their performance. They may teach them mental techniques for dealing with pre-game nerves or helping them to focus on their game plan. They may also work with coaches to help them create a positive team environment and develop strategies for dealing with difficult situations.

Psychological Research Method

Psychological research methods are the strategies and techniques that psychologists use to conduct scientific investigations.

Psychologists use a variety of research methods to study the human mind and behavior. These methods include:

  • Experiments
  • Surveys
  • Interviews
  • Case Studies
  • Observation


Experiments are the most commonly used research method in psychology. They allow psychologists to study cause-and-effect relationships by manipulating one or more variables and measuring the effect on other variables.


Surveys are another common research method used in psychology. Surveys allow researchers to collect data from a large number of people quickly and efficiently.


Interviews are another common research method used in psychology. Interviews allow psychologists to collect detailed information about an individual’s thoughts, feelings, and experiences.

Case Studies

Case studies are another common research method used in psychology. Case studies are in-depth, longterm investigations of a single person or a small group of people.


Observation is another common research method used in psychology. Psychologists use observation to study the behavior of individuals and groups in natural settings.

Purpose of Psychology

Through scientific Research, Psychology has identified many important factors that influence our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. For example, psychologists have found that our early experiences can have a lasting impact on our later lives. They have also discovered that we are often more influenced by our unconscious mind than we realize. Additionally, psychologists have found that we are social beings who are strongly influenced by the people around us.

The knowledge gained from psychology’s scientific research can be applied in many ways to improve the human condition. For example, psychological research has shown that early intervention can prevent or reduce the severity of many mental disorders.

About the author

Muhammad Hassan

I am Muhammad Hassan, a Researcher, Academic Writer, Web Developer, and Android App Developer. I have worked in various industries and have gained a wealth of knowledge and experience. In my spare time, I enjoy writing blog posts and articles on a variety of Academic topics. I also like to stay up-to-date with the latest trends in the IT industry to share my knowledge with others through my writing.