What is Research – Forms, Types & Steps

What is Research


Research is the process of systematically acquiring new knowledge or understanding about a topic. It involves asking questions about the topic, gathering information from a variety of sources, and analyzing that information to develop new insights. Researchers use complex academic jargon to communicate their findings in a way that is clear and concise.

Research could be researching a specific topic for a school assignment, looking into potential solutions to a problem at work, or learning more about your family history. Whatever the case may be, research is an essential part of acquiring knowledge. It can help students learn about different fields, discover new information, and build a foundation for future learning. In addition to helping students excel in academics, research can also provide opportunities for professional development and advancement.

Forms of Research

There are six forms of Research according to the area of the study.

Original Research

Original research is work that is conducted by the researcher for the first time and is not based on someone else’s previous findings. This type of research is important because it allows for new information and knowledge to be discovered. Original research can be conducted in a variety of ways, including through experiments, surveys, and interviews.

Scientific Research

The process of scientific research is the systematic approach to acquiring new knowledge. The heart of the scientific process is the generation of ideas or hypotheses, which can be tested through experimentation. After a hypothesis has been generated, researchers use a variety of methods to gather data and analyze it. This information is then used to support or refute the original hypothesis. The cycle of generating hypotheses, gathering data, and analyzing them is repeated over and over again until scientists have a solid understanding of the problem they are investigating.

Research in the humanities

The humanities include the study of language, literature, philosophy, religion, and art. Researchers in the humanities use a variety of methods to explore these subjects, including historical analysis, textual criticism, philosophical argumentation, and interpretation of works of art.

One important goal of research in the humanities is to understand the meaning that these texts and artifacts have for people in different times and places. Researchers may also explore how the study of language, literature, philosophy, religion, and art can help us better understand human culture and society.

Artistic research

The term is not easily defined, as the practice can encompass a wide range of activities. Generally, though, it refers to creative work that is done in order to further knowledge or understanding of a particular subject. This might involve making art, participating in scholarly discourse, or a combination of the two.

Some people argue that artistic research should be considered its own field, separate from traditional academic research. Others maintain that it’s simply an extension of more traditional modes of inquiry. The debate about what constitutes artistic research and how it should be studied and practiced is ongoing.

Historical research

Historical research is the process of studying past events, activities, and people by examining records and other sources of information. It helps us understand how things came to be the way they are and can also provide insights into possible future scenarios. In order to conduct historical research effectively, it’s important to have a solid understanding of the concepts and terminology associated with it. Additionally, researchers must be able to evaluate the credibility of sources and use appropriate methods for analyzing data.

Documentary research

Documentary research is a type of qualitative research that uses documentary sources to explore a topic or question. This type of research can be used in a variety of ways, including historical research, social science research, and journalistic investigations. Documentary research can provide an in-depth understanding of a topic by analyzing multiple sources of information. The sources can include films, photographs, government documents, newspapers, and other materials.

Types of Research

Types of Research

The Research is mainly divided into two types:

Basic Research

Basic research is the foundation of knowledge in any field. It is the original and ongoing effort to increase human understanding of the world around us. Basic research is often curiosity-driven, and it does not have a specific application in mind when it begins. Instead, basic research produces knowledge for its own sake, with the hope that it will be useful in the future.

Applied Research

Applied research is a form of inquiry that is designed to solve specific problems or to improve practice in a specific area. It differs from basic research, which is conducted primarily to increase our understanding of the natural world, and from experimental research, which is conducted to test new hypotheses. Applied research is often undertaken in collaboration with practitioners in the field who can provide feedback on the feasibility and usefulness of proposed solutions.

Steps in Research

To start Research the Researcher must follow these steps:

  • Identification of Research problem  and Research Topic
  • Literature review of the topic
  • Specifying the purpose of Research
  • Determining specific research questions
  • Specification of a conceptual framework( hypotheses)
  • Selecting a methodology
  • Data Collection Methods
  • Verifying data
  • Analyzing and Processing the data
  • Reporting and evaluating research (Final words)
  • Communicating the research findings and, possibly, recommendations

Research Problem and Research Topic

The first step in any research project is to identify and define the research problem. The research problem is the question or issue that you are trying to answer through your research. It is important to be clear and specific about the problem you are investigating so that you can focus your efforts and produce results that are relevant and useful.
Once you have identified the research problem, you need to choose a topic or area of focus for your project. Your topic should be something that interests you and that you can reasonably investigate in the time allotted. It is also important to make sure that your topic is relevant to your field of study or area of interest. Once you have a good understanding of the research problem and the topic, you can begin developing a plan for conducting your research.

Literature review of the topic

A literature review of the topic is a comprehensive examination of published research on a particular subject. It provides an overview of the current state of knowledge on the subject and identifies any gaps in the research. A literature review can be used to inform a research project or to identify areas for further research.

Specifying the purpose of the Research

This means deciding what you hope to learn from your study and how you will achieve that goal. Without a clear purpose, it can be difficult to design an effective study or know when you have reached your conclusions.

Determining specific Research questions

One of the most important steps in designing a research project is determining the specific research questions that will be addressed. These questions should be narrowly focused and answerable using empirical data. They should also be relevant to the overall goals of the project and the theoretical framework that guides it. In order to develop good research questions, it’s important to have a clear understanding of both the problem that you are trying to solve and the larger context within which it exists.

Specification of a conceptual framework

A conceptual framework is a specification of how a researcher plans to study a problem. It describes the proposed relationships among concepts and the assumptions that will be made about the problem. A conceptual framework is also a way to organize one’s thoughts and ideas about a research problem.

Methodology (Research Methods)

When it comes to any type of research, methodology is key. The methodology is the plan researchers put in place to answer their research questions. There are a variety of different methodologies researchers can use, and the choice of which one to use depends on the question being asked and the data available. There are there types of Research Methodology

Data collection

There are many different data collection methods that can be used in research. The most important thing is to select the method that will best answer the research question. Some of the most common methods are:

  1. One-to-one Interview
  2. Focus Groups
  3. Ethnographic studies
  4. Text Analysis
  5. Case Study
  6. Process of observation
  7. Survey

Research Approach

There are 3 types of data analysis or Research approaches:

  1. Deductive approach
  2. Inductive approach
  3. Abductive approach

Verifying data

Making sure that the data gathered during research is accurate is essential to producing valid results. There are a few different ways to verify data, depending on the type of data and the research method used. In some cases, such as with surveys or experiments, the data can be verified by checking it against other data sources. In other cases, such as with focus groups or interviews, the data can be verified by checking it for consistency with participants’ self-reports. Regardless of the verification method used, it is important to make sure that all steps are followed correctly in order to produce accurate results.

Analyzing and interpreting the data

When researchers conduct a study, they compile data from the study participants. This data is then analyzed and interpreted in order to understand the implications of the study and what it means for future research. The data may be presented in tables or graphs, which can be difficult to understand without proper interpretation. The analysis and interpretation of data is a critical step in the research process, and it is important to ensure that the data is accurately interpreted in order to draw accurate conclusions from the study.

Reporting and evaluating research

Reporting and evaluating research can be difficult. It is important to make sure that the information is accurate and presented in a way that is easy to understand. The final words of a research study are important, as they can help to summarize the findings and determine the next steps.

Research findings and, possibly, recommendations

When researchers complete a study, they must communicate the findings and any recommendations to those who funded the research, to other researchers who might want to build on the work, and to the public. Researchers must also consider how best to present their findings so that they are clear and understandable. Communicating research findings is an important part of the scientific process, and it helps others learn from the work that has been done.

Characteristics of Research

There are a number of key characteristics that define research.

  • Research is systematic, objective, and empirical. It also involves testing hypotheses and using data to support or refute ideas.
  • In order to be considered research, studies must be conducted in a controlled setting and use sound methodology.
  • Additionally, research is typically published in peer-reviewed journals so that it can be evaluated by other experts in the field.

About the author

Muhammad Hassan

I am Muhammad Hassan, a Researcher, Academic Writer, Web Developer, and Android App Developer. I have worked in various industries and have gained a wealth of knowledge and experience. In my spare time, I enjoy writing blog posts and articles on a variety of Academic topics. I also like to stay up-to-date with the latest trends in the IT industry to share my knowledge with others through my writing.