Evidence is anything that may be used to prove or disprove a fact. It can take many forms, including physical objects, testimony from witnesses, and records. The rules for what types of evidence are admissible in court are complex, and vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction.
Evidence must be relevant to the issue at hand and must be more probative than prejudicial. That is, it must have a tendency to prove or disprove the point in question, and it must not be unduly inflammatory or confusing. Evidence that meets these criteria is said to be material.
Evidence in Research
In the research process, evidence is defined as the information that is used to support a claim or finding. This can come in many forms, including data from experiments, surveys, interviews, and observations.
When choosing what evidence to use, it is important to consider its quality. This includes things like how reliable and valid the data is, how well it represents the population of interest, and how well it has been controlled for confounding factors.
Evidence can also be classified by its type:
Primary evidence is data that is collected directly from the phenomenon being studied. Secondary evidence is data that has already been collected and published by someone else.
Types of Evidence
There are four common types of evidence:
- Physical evidence
- Circumstantial evidence
- Direct evidence
- Indirect evidence
Physical evidence is anything that can be seen or touched. It can be helpful in proving that a crime was committed or in linking a suspect to a crime scene.
Circumstantial evidence is evidence that suggests something but does not prove it outright. It might include things like witness statements or motive.
Direct evidence is evidence that directly proves something. For example, a confession would be direct evidence of guilt.
Indirect evidence is evidence that supports an argument but does not directly prove it. This might include things like expert testimony or character witnesses.
Example of Evidence
An example of evidence is a physical object that can be used to support a claim.
For instance, if you were claiming that you saw a UFO, an example of evidence would be a photo or video of the UFO. If you were claiming that you won the lottery, an example of evidence would be the winning lottery ticket.
In order for something to be considered as evidence, it must be able to be objectively verified. This means that it cannot be based on personal opinion or feelings.